Chaga is one of the highest food antioxidants in the world!
Click on the graph to your right ---------------->
Chaga (Scientific Name: Inonotus Obliquus)
Chaga is the most powerful sought after mushroom on earth. It’s one of the highest, if not the highest, antioxidants in the world and it’s documented extensively for having numerous health benefits, but it’s publicized mostly as an anti-cancer.
Antioxidants are substances that protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage can lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and prevent some of the damage free radicals might otherwise cause. Examples of antioxidants include beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamins A, C and E and other substances. Beta-carotene is found in many foods that are orange in color, including Chaga.
Betulinic acid, a constituent of Chaga, is cytotoxic and triggers apoptosis through a direct effect on the mitochondria of cancer cells. Other apoptosis-inducing factors result in cleavage of caspases and nuclear fragmentation. Like many medicinal mushrooms, Chaga is rich in beta glucans, which have immunomodulating activities. Beta glucans bind to Complement Receptor 3 (CR3) that allows the immune cells to recognize cancer cells as “non-self” A hot water extract of Chaga exhibited inhibitory and proapoptotic actions against colon cancer cell proliferation via up-regulation of Bax and caspase-3 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. For more information on betulinic acid, please go to our Science & Research Tab and read the following Elsevier Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters on New ionic derivatives of betulinic acid as highly potent anti-cancer agents, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, and Developing Novel Derivatives of Betulinic Acid for Fighting HIV.
In addition to being used as an anti-cancer, Chaga has demonstrated anti-HIV, antibacterial, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic properties. Chaga is also antiviral, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-Candida. Chaga is an immune system modulator as well as an adaptogen and has the highest level of superoxide dismutase or (SOD) detected in any food or herb in the world.
In 2005, published in The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms by Ulrike Lindequist et al., Water-soluble lignins isolated from Chaga, inhibited HIV protease with an IC 50 value of 2.5 mg ml_1. . Immunostimulation, other effects of the polysaccharide–protein complexes contribute to the antiviral activity, e.g. inhibition of binding of HIV-1 gp120 to immobilized CD4 receptor and of reverse transcriptase activity of viruses. Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was caused by velutin, a ribosome inactivating protein from Flammulina velutipes (M. A. Curtis: Fr.) P. Karst., as well. A total of 85% of responders reported an increased sense of well-being with regard to various symptoms and secondary diseases caused by HIV. Twenty patients showed an increase in CD4þ cell counts to 1.4–1.8 times and eight patients a decrease to 0.8–0.5 times.
Chaga kills or inhibits growth or replication by destroying or suppressing reproduction of bacteria. The following are some properties in Chaga that are antibacterial: Betulinic Acid, copper, flavonoids, inotodiol, lanosterol, magnesium, melanin, pantothenic acid, phytonutrients, polysaccharides, saponins, selenium, sterols, tripeptides, triterpenes and zinc.
There are many active constituents in Chaga that make it antimalarial, but the main biological activities are betulinic acid, saponins and triterpenes.
The anti-inflammatory and pain relieving properties of Chaga are thought to be the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). An extract of Chaga reduced the oxidative stress in lymphocytes from patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
There are many active constituents in Chaga that make it anthelmintic, but the main biological activities are betulinic acid, saponins and triterpenes.
There are many active constituents in Chaga that make it antiviral, but the main biological activities are betulinic acid, saponins and triterpenes.
The following properties make Chaga an antifungal: beta glucans, betulinic acid, copper, enzymes, flavonoids, lanosterol, manganese, magnesium, pantothenic acid, phenols, polysaccharides, saponins, selenium, sterols, trametenolic acid, triterpenes, triterpenoids and zinc.
Antimicrobial properties in Chaga are amino acids, betulinic acid, chitin, copper, enzymes, flavonoids, inotodiols, lanosterol, manganese, magnesium, melanin, phenols, phytonutrients, polysaccharides, potassium, saponins, selenium, sterols, trametenolic acid, tripeptides, triterpenes, triterpenoids, vanillin and zinc.
Chaga promotes and protects the functions of the liver which busily processes Candida toxins.
Chaga has properties that help to lower cholesterol, inflammation and blood pressure levels through sterols and triterpenes. Chaga contains B and D vitamins and lots of protein which promote relief from stress, depression and fatigue which Candida sufferers deal with.
Immune System Modulator
Chaga has potent immune supporting properties. Chaga is a rich source of beta glucans, and polysaccharides that are essential nutrients for the immune system. These polysaccharides have strong anti-inflammatory and immune balancing properties, enhancing the body’s ability to produce natural killer (NK) cells to battle infections. These polysaccharides are considered to be the primary active constituents of Chaga, at least from an immunological perspective. Upon ingestion, a range of secondary metabolites are produced, many of which are highly active as potent immune modulators. Chaga polysaccharides effectively promote macrophage (white blood cell) activation through the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that Chaga polysaccharides help regulate the immune response of the body.
Chaga is an adaptogen, which means its compounds increase the body's ability to adapt to stress, fatigue, anxiety and changing situations.
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)
Chaga has the highest level of superoxide dismutase or (SOD) detected in any food or herb in the world! Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that repairs cells and reduces the damage done to them by superoxide, the most common free radical in the body. SOD is found in both the dermis and the epidermis, and is key to the production of healthy fibroblasts (skin-building cells).
Studies have shown that SOD acts as both an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory in the body, neutralizing the free radicals that can lead to wrinkles and precancerous cell changes. Researchers are currently studying the potential of superoxide dismutase as an anti-aging treatment, since it is now known that SOD levels drop while free radical levels increase as we age.
Superoxide Dismutase helps the body use zinc, copper, and manganese. There are two types of SOD: copper/zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD and manganese (Mn) SOD. Each type of SOD plays a different role in keeping cells healthy. Cu/Zn SOD protects the cells’ cytoplasm, and Mn SOD protects their mitochondria from free radical damage.
Superoxide Dismutase has also been used to treat arthritis, prostate problems, corneal ulcers, burn injuries, inflammatory diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and long-term damage from exposure to smoke and radiation, and to prevent side effects of cancer drugs. In its topical form, it may help to reduce facial wrinkles, scar tissue, heal wounds and burns, lighten dark or hyperpigmentation, and protect against harmful UV rays.
Active Constituents of Chaga
The active constituents of Chaga are thought to be a combination of Amino Acids, Beta Glucans, Betulinic Acid, Calcium, Chloride, Copper, Dietary Fiber, Enzymes, Flavonoids, Germanium, Inotodiols, Iron, Lanosterol, Manganese, Magnesium, Melanin, Pantothenic Acid, Phenols, Phosphorus, Phytonutrients, Polysaccharides, Potassium, Saponins, Selenium, Sodium, Sterols, Trametenolic Acid, Tripeptides, Triterpenes, Triterpenoids, Vanillic Acid, Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (Niacin), Vitamin D2 (Ergosterol), Vitamin K and Zinc.
Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins. Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body needs a number of amino acids to:
• Break down food
• Repair body tissue
• Perform many other body functions
Beta glucans are used for high cholesterol, diabetes, cancer, and HIV/AIDS. Beta glucans are also used to boost the immune system in people whose body defenses have been weakened by conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, or physical and emotional stress; or by treatments such as radiation or chemotherapy. Beta glucans are also used for colds (common cold), flu (influenza), H1N1 (swine) flu, allergies, hepatitis, Lyme disease, asthma, ear infections, aging, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.
Betulinic acid is a natural pentacyclic lupane-type triterpene that is found in Chaga, as well as other various plants, including birch trees. This compound and its derivatives possess many favorable biological properties such as anti-cancer, anti-HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type-1), antibacterial, anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. Betulinic acid was initially known for its high cytotoxicity against human melanoma cancer cells, but later studies also suggest this compound being a broad inhibitor of other cancerous tumors including aneuroectodermal tumors (such as neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, glioblastoma and Ewing’s sarcoma), brain-tumors, human gliomas, leukemia, human colon carcinoma and human prostate adenocarcinoma, head and neck squamous carcinoma cells, lung, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer.
One of the most abundant minerals in the human body, calcium accounts for approximately 1.5% of total body weight. Bones and teeth house 99% of the calcium in the body, while the remaining 1% is distributed in other areas.
Calcium is best known for its role in maintaining the strength and density of bones. In a process known as bone mineralization, calcium and phosphorus join to form calcium phosphate. Calcium phosphate is a major component of the mineral complex (called hydroxyapatite) that gives structure and strength to bones.
Calcium also plays a role in many physiological activities not related to bones including blood clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, regulation of enzyme activity, and cell membrane function. Because these physiological activities are essential to life, the body utilizes complex regulatory systems to tightly control the amount of calcium in the blood so that calcium is available for these activities. As a result, when dietary intake of calcium is too low to maintain normal blood levels of calcium, the body will draw on calcium stores in the bones to maintain normal blood concentrations, which, after many years, can lead to osteoporosis.
Chloride is one of the most important electrolytes in the blood. It helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of your cells in balance. It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of your body fluids.
Copper is a natural element that is an essential micronutrient to ensure the well-being of all aerobic life forms. It plays a vital part in the development and performance of the human nervous and cardiovascular systems, as well as the skin, bone, immune and reproductive systems, including gene transcription. Copper can also inhibit the growth of microbes, thus providing a measure of protection against harmful germs and bacteria in many environments. Copper has been found useful for its healing powers—largely due to its antibacterial and antifungal properties—in the treatment of wounds and skin diseases. Present in our bodies from conception, copper helps form a developing infant’s heart, skeletal and nervous systems, as well as arteries and blood vessels. Copper continues to play a vital role as we age – keeping our hair and skin in good condition while repairing and maintaining connective tissue in our hearts and arteries. It also facilitates absorption and utilization of iron and enables cells to use the energy present in carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
Dietary fiber intake provides many health benefits. However, average fiber intakes for US children and adults are less than half of the recommended levels. Individuals with high intakes of dietary fiber appear to be at significantly lower risk for developing coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and certain gastrointestinal diseases. Increasing fiber intake lowers blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels. Increased intake of soluble fiber improves glycemia and insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic and diabetic individuals. Fiber supplementation in obese individuals significantly enhances weight loss. Increased fiber intake benefits a number of gastrointestinal disorders including the following: gastroesophageal reflux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, constipation, and hemorrhoids. Prebiotic fibers appear to enhance immune function. Dietary fiber intake provides similar benefits for children as for adults.
Enzymes are energized protein molecules found in all living cells. They catalyze and regulate all biochemical reactions that occur within the human body. They are also instrumental in digestion. They break down proteins, fats, carbohydrates and fiber making it possible to benefit from the nutrients found in those foods while removing the toxins. Enzymes turn the food we eat into energy and unlock this energy for use in the body. Their presence and strength can be determined by improved blood and immune system functions.
Flavonoids are polyphenols abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, and herbs. They are a diverse group of phytochemicals, exceeding four thousand in number. From human nutrition perspective, flavonoids are important components of a healthy diet because of their antioxidant activity. Nevertheless, the antioxidant potency and specific effect of flavonoids in promoting human health varies depending on the flavonoid type (chemical, physical, and structural properties). Among the potent antioxidant flavonoid types are quercetin, catechins and xanthohumol. Flavonoid science is a research area rapidly gaining deeper insight on the health benefit and chemical property of flavonoids.
Beneficial effects of flavonoids on human health are partly explained by their antioxidant activity. Because of the antioxidative property, it is suggested that flavonoids may delay or prevent the onset of diseases (such as cancer) induced by free radicals. They also inhibit low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radicals. Flavonoids have been reported to have negative correlation with incidence of coronary heart disease. Furthermore, flavonoids have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, and vasodilatory effect. They also inhibit platelet aggregation.
Nutritionally, the natural element germanium has been known to aid in the prevention of cancer and AIDS. Certain compounds of germanium have toxic effects against certain bacteria. In its organic form, germanium is being hailed as one of the greatest new developments in the nutritional treatment of cancer.
The estimated daily intake for germanium is 1 mg. Germanium has been reported to improve the immune system, boost the body's oxygen supply, make a person feel more energetic, and destroy damaging free radicals. Germanium also protects against radiation.
Organic germanium is a biological-response modifier. This means it enables the body to change its response to tumors, which has therapeutic benefits. Germanium does not directly attack cancer cells, but stimulates the body's immune system, making it effective in the treatment of cancer as well as other degenerative diseases.
A number of human cancer trials have been conducted with organic germanium. A summary of Phase I and Phase II human clinical trials reveals that orally administered organic germanium induces interferon production, restores previously impaired immune response, and has shown extremely low toxicity.
Inotodiol and trametenolic acid are considered to be the main bioactive compounds of the fruiting body of the mushroom. These compounds show various biological activities, including anti-tumour, anti-viral, hypoglycaemic, anti-oxidant and cyto-protective. Inotodiol has shown activity against influenza (flu) viruses A and B and various cancer cells. Inotodiols extracted from Chaga exhibit anti-tumor properties, destroying Walker 256 Carcinosarcoma cancer cells and MCF-7 human adenocarcinoma mammary cells. Institutional studies at the University of Tokyo, Japan have determined the effective destruction of certain cancerous carcinosarcomas and mammary adenocarcinomas.
Iron is a mineral essential for life. It is present in every living cell and is necessary for the production of hemoglobin (primary component of red blood cells), myoglobin (major protein of muscle cells), and certain enzymes. Iron, along with calcium, are the two major deficiencies of American women (one of the reasons due to menstruation and bleeding), and this deficiency can cause weakness, inability to concentrate, the susceptibility to infection, impaired performance, and in general, ill health. Other people at risk of iron deficiency include dieters, vegetarians and athletes. Calcium and copper must be present for iron to function properly, and ascorbic acid (vitamin c) enhances absorption. Iron is necessary for proper metabolization of B vitamins.
Lanosterols exhibit strong cytotoxicity towards carcinoma cells. It’s also an anti-bacterial, lowers cholesterol and reduces candida.
Manganese is a mineral and trace element that plays many essential roles in the body. It aids in the metabolism of food, normal functioning of the nervous system, in the formation of the thyroxine hormone for the thyroid gland, and in the production of sex hormones. Manganese works as an antioxidant to help prevent cancer and heart disease.
Manganese helps activate enzymes needed for use of biotin, B-1 (thiamin), and vitamin C. It's important for the formation of thyroxine, the main hormone of the thyroid gland. Manganese is essential for proper digestion and the metabolization of proteins. Manganese also plays an important role in digestion and utilization of food, reproduction, normal bone structure, and normal functioning of the central nervous system.
Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and is essential to good health. Approximately 50% of total body magnesium is found in bone. The other half is found predominantly inside cells of body tissues and organs. Only 1% of magnesium is found in blood, but the body works very hard to keep blood levels of magnesium constant.
The crucial health benefits of magnesium include solving or preventing osteoporosis, heart attacks, hypertension, constipation, migraines, leg cramps, kidney stones, gallstones and more. Magnesium is an essential part of the alternative health approaches of alternative medicine.
Melanin is a natural substance that gives color (pigment) to hair, skin, and the iris of the eye. It is produced by cells in the skin called melanocytes. Melanin also helps protect the skin from the sun. Increased melanin protects those who have it from short-term damage from the sun, as well as the long-term signs of aging, such as age spots, deep wrinkles and rough texture. Free radicals have been implicated as the cause of widespread damage to human cells. Melanin plays a role in free scavenging radicals and preventing skin damage they can cause. It affects the delicately designed lipids that hold moisture in the stratum corneum. This is the outermost layer of the epidermis. If the skin loses its moisture, it becomes rigid and cracks.
The health benefits of Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid include alleviation of conditions like asthma, hair loss, allergies, stress and anxiety, respiratory disorders and heart problems. Also, it helps to improve immunity, osteoarthritis, ageing signs, resistance to various types of infections, physical growth, and diabetes and skin disorders. Vitamin B5 is widely known to be an obstacle to serious mental states like stress and anxiety. A customary diet must contain recommended amount of Vitamin B5 to ensure good health and proper functioning of each body part. It performs wide variety of functions in our body, starting from production of neurotransmitter in brain to fabrication of steroids to extraction of fats, proteins and other vital nutrients. In a nutshell, the essence of Vitamin B5 pats every important aspect of keeping a good health.
Phenols are compounds found in a wide variety of foods ranging from Chaga to olive oil to green tea and almonds. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phenols benefit a wide variety of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s Disease. Phenols are thought to be the primary health benefit of olive oil consumption, with benefits seen for breast cell health, bone health, and cholesterol health.
Phosphorus is the second most abundant mineral in the body and 85% of it is found in the bones. The rest of the body's phosphorus is found in the blood, the fluid around and in cells, and in various organs like the heart, kidneys, brain, and muscles, where it is involved in many critical functions. Its main purpose is for building strong bones and teeth, but this mineral is used by practically every cell in the body.
Phosphorus is involved in virtually all physiological chemical reactions in the body, and calcium and Vitamin D are essential to proper functioning of the phosphorus. This mineral protects and strengthens cell membranes, assists other nutrients, hormones, and chemicals in their bodily processes, and is necessary for normal bone and tooth structure. Phosphorus is needed for healthy nerve impulses, normal kidney functioning, and the utilization of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins for growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and for energy production. Phosphorus is a component of DNA and RNA and serves in the preparation of glucose for energy formation.
Apart from the major food principles like protein, carbohydrates, and fats, large number of food items we consume consists of invaluable components in them known as phytonutrients or plant derived chemical substances. Although their caloric value is insignificant, inclusion in our diet in adequate levels is imperative since the potential benefits in terms of direct contribution to health promotion and disease prevention are enormous.
Studies have found that certain chemicals other than nutritional principles in them have anti-mutagenic, free radical scavenging and immunity boosting functions, which help promote health and prevent diseases, over and above their nutritive value.
Phytonutrients are present abundantly in the plant world.
2. Phyto-sterols (plant sterols)
3. Non-digestible carbohydrates such as tannins, pectin, cellulose and mucilage
4. Natural acids
5. Enzymes and lecithin.
Polysaccharides have many chains and must be broken down into smaller portions before they can be fully digested. Although polysaccharides are a form of sugar, many of their food sources rarely taste sweet.
Polysaccharides are important in the prevention of degenerative type diseases. These include cardiovascular disease and diabetes type 2. Tea action is related to the poly-phenols and polysaccharides parts of tea.
Polysaccharides can also act as an anticoagulant. It reduces the stickiness of platelets making it harder for them to build up in artery walls. They have anti-thrombotic effects and blood lipids are reduced. HDL cholesterol may be raised while LDL levels are decreased.
Polysaccharides help to regulate immune function with T and B lymphocyte activation. It promotes Interferon, a white cell medium and tumor necrosis (death).
Tea polysaccharides have the following effects. They lower blood pressure and increase coronary artery capacity. Blood sugar levels are reduced which is a benefit in treating Diabetics. There is improved Beta cell function in the pancreas, as well as anti-diabetic properties. Anti-radiation effects may be noted, and free radicals can be all but eliminated. There is anti-viral activity, and it improves blood reproduction and maintenance.
Potassium, the third most abundant mineral in human body, is the synonym for health insurer. It contains the qualities for maintaining a high level of human well-being and a cheerful lifestyle. There is no way one should overlook the inclusion of potassium in routine diet plan. Apart from acting as an electrolyte, this mineral is required for keeping heart, brain, kidney, muscle tissues and other important organs of human body in good condition. Potassium chloride is the main variety of this mineral amongst others. It works in association with sodium to perform a number of critical body tasks.
The health benefits of potassium include stroke, blood pressure, anxiety and stress, muscular strength, metabolism, heart and kidney disorders, water balance, electrolytic functions, nervous system and other general health benefits of potassium.
Saponins are a group of chemicals with detergent-like properties that plants produce to help them resist microbial pathogens such as fungi.
Saponins may reduce elevated cholesterol levels by forming complexes with cholesterol and bile acids, which prevents them from being absorbed through your small intestines. The cholesterol and bile complexes are excreted in the stool, which lowers cholesterol levels in the blood and liver.
Saponins may decrease your risk of cancer. A 2004 study published in "Journal of Medicinal Food" says colon, breast, uterine and prostate cancer rates are lower in countries where inhabitants consume large amounts of legumes. This may be due to the immune system modulating effects of saponins that increase anti-tumor activity in your body. The stimulation of bile acid secretion in the intestinal tract, and antioxidant activity may also contribute to a reduced risk of cancer.
Antioxidants prevent cell damage by protecting lipids from free radical oxidation reactions. Saponins prevent oxidation of cholesterol in the colon, which may also help to reduce colon damage and the risk of cancer. They also prevent degeneration of DNA and protect cell proteins from free radical damage.
Saponins may stimulate the immune system, and according to the 2004 article referenced earlier, they are used as adjuvants in vaccines and oral intakes of saponins have been used to help treat retroviral infection. They stimulate antibody production, inhibit viruses, and induce the response by lymphocytes, which are white blood cells that fight infection.
Selenium is a trace element found in soil and is required to maintain good health in trace amounts.
Selenium aids in many of the metabolic pathways and may help treat prostate cancer; ongoing research is exploring the relationship between low selenium levels and coronary heart disease.
Selenium also benefits the skin during healing following burn injuries. Shampoo with selenium may alleviate dandruff problems. For skin care, selenium’s antioxidant properties regenerate vitamins E and C, thereby decreasing the aging of skin.
Major benefits of selenium have been found to improve the immune system against bacterial and viral infections, against cancer cells and herpes virus, cold sores, and shingles. One of the major nutritional benefits of selenium is increasing the HDL cholesterol to LDL cholesterol for a healthy heart.
Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Sodium is an element that the body needs to function properly. The body uses sodium to regulate blood pressure and blood volume. Sodium is also critical for the functioning of muscles and nerves.
Plant sterols and stanols are naturally occurring substances found in plants. Research has shown that plant sterols/stanols included with a heart healthy eating plan may reduce your risk for heart disease. The sterols/stanols work by blocking the absorption of cholesterol in the small intestine. This lowers the low density cholesterol known as the 'bad' cholesterol (LDL ) by 6-15%, without lowering the good cholesterol known as the high density cholesterol ( HDL). Clinical research trials have documented safety and effectiveness for use by the entire family. Plant stanols/sterols do not interfere with cholesterol lowering medications.
Inotodiol and trametenolic acid are considered to be the main bioactive compounds of the fruiting body of the mushroom. These compounds show various biological activities, including anti-tumour, anti-viral, hypoglycaemic, anti-oxidant and cyto-protective.
A tripeptide is a type of peptide that is formed when amino acids link together in a specific order. Each tripeptide contains three different amino acids. These amino acids are joined by a peptide bond, which is a chemical bond that occurs between two molecules. A common tripeptide is isoleucine-proline-proline, also called the milk peptide, which is responsible for keeping blood pressure low and stable.
The main function of tripeptides is cell communication. They also contribute to body functions such as blood pressure regulation and thyroid function. As tripeptides age, however, communication signals may start to deteriorate, which can cause signs of aging and other health issues.
Another type of tripeptide is glutathione which is an anti-oxidant that can be critical in protecting healthy cells from free radicals in the body. Free radicals can cause cell damage that is linked to the development of cancer cells. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide responsible for regulating the release of hormones in the thyroid.
Tripeptides have become popular with cosmetic companies who are creating anti-aging products. Since the body uses tripeptides for communication, anti-aging proponents believe that topical forms of tripeptides can boost skin function and reverse damage to the skin. This essentially gives cells back their youth and prevents improper cell communication in the skin. Anti-aging product manufactures claim that tripetides used in these products improve the skin’s appearance, making it smooth and soft.
Tripeptide-3 and tripeptide-1 are the common ingredients used in these products, and are believed to stimulate skin cells and produce more collagen. Due to the fact that tripeptides usually are not cheap to produce, consumers typically can expect to pay larger sums for products with these active ingredients.
Triterpenes are found in all living organisms: plants, animals, humans. Triterpenes are precursors to steroids – in order to produce steroids, the organism, whether plant or animal produces triterpenes. Naturally occurring precursors to steroids and naturally occurring steroids are the plant and animal worlds’ way of managing inflammation, safely and naturally. Triterpenes belong to a large group of compounds arranged in a four or five ring configuration of 30 carbons with several oxygens attached. Triterpenes are assembled from a C5 isoprene unit through the cytosolic mevalonate pathway to make a C30 compound and are steroidal in nature. Cholesterol is one example of a triterpene. Phytosterols and phytoecdysteroids are also triterpenes. The triterpenes are subdivided into some 20 groups, depending on their particular structures. Though all terpenoid compounds have bioactivity in mammals, it is the triterpenes that are most important to the adaptogenic effect found in plants such as Chaga, ginseng or Eleutherococcus senticosus.
Triterpenoid saponins are triterpenes which belong to the group of saponin compounds.
Triterpenoids Display Single Agent Anti-tumor Activity in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Small B Cell Lymphoma.
Vanillic acid is a benzoic acid derivative used as a flavoring agent. It is an oxidized form of vanillin produced during the conversion of vanillin to ferulic acid. The highest quantity of vanillic acid in plants has been found in the roots of Angelica sinensis, which is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Various studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of vanillic acid in the management of immune or inflammatory responses. For instance, vanillic acid enhanced the activity of human lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Another study has shown that vanillic acid has a hepatoprotective effect through its suppressive action on immune-mediated liver inflammation in concanavalin A-induced liver injury. However, it remains to be determined whether vanillic acid has an anti-colitic effect.
A study on was done to determine whether vanillic acid has beneficial effects against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis. The results showed that vanillic acid reduced the severity of the clinical signs of DSS-induced colitis, including weight loss and shortening of colon length, and the disease activity index. The results of this study showed that vanillic acid significantly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and the activation of transcription nuclear factor-B p65 in DSS treated colon tissues. In addition, we observed that the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 were higher in the DSS-treated group than in the control group, but these increased levels were reduced by the administration of vanillic acid. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillic acid has a beneficial effect on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, thereby indicating its usefulness in the regulation of chronic intestinal inflammation.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) is a vitamin that is required by your body to turn carbohydrates into a form of energy usable within your cells.
Thiamine is also used for digestive problems including poor appetite, ulcerative colitis, and ongoing diarrhea.
Thiamine is also used for AIDS and boosting the immune system, diabetic pain, heart disease, alcoholism, aging, a type of brain damage called cerebellar syndrome, canker sores, vision problems such as cataracts and glaucoma, motion sickness, and improving athletic performance. Other uses include preventing cervical cancer and progression of kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Some people use thiamine for maintaining a positive mental attitude; enhancing learning abilities; increasing energy; fighting stress; and preventing memory loss, including Alzheimer's disease.
Healthcare providers give thiamine shots for a memory disorder called Wernicke's encephalopathy syndrome, other thiamine deficiency syndromes in critically ill people, alcohol withdrawal, and coma.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is manufactured in the body by the intestinal flora and is easily absorbed, although very small quantities are stored, so there is a constant need for this vitamin.
It is required by the body to use oxygen and the metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. Riboflavin is further needed to activate vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), helps to create niacin and assists the adrenal gland. It may be used for red blood cell formation, antibody production, cell respiration, and growth.
Riboflavin is used for preventing low levels of riboflavin (riboflavin deficiency), cervical cancer, and migraineheadaches. It is also used for treating riboflavin deficiency, acne, muscle cramps, burning feet syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, and blood disorders such as congenital methemoglobinemia and red blood cell aplasia. Some people use riboflavin for eye conditions including eye fatigue, cataracts, and glaucoma.
Other uses include increasing energy levels; boosting immune system function; maintaining healthy hair, skin, mucous membranes, and nails; slowing aging; boosting athletic performance; promoting healthy reproductive function; canker sores; memory loss, including Alzheimer's disease; ulcers; burns; alcoholism; liver disease; sickle cellanemia; and treating lactic acidosis brought on by treatment with a class of AIDS medications called NRTI drugs.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Niacin also called nicotinic acid, niacinamide or nicotinic acid and referred to as vitamin B 3, which can be manufactured by the body. Niacin is derived from two compounds - nicotinic acid and niacinamide.
Vitamin B3 is required for cell respiration, helps in the release of energy and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, proper circulation and healthy skin, functioning of the nervous system, and normal secretion of bile and stomach fluids. It is used in the synthesis of sex hormones, treating schizophrenia and other mental illnesses, and a memory-enhancer.
Vitamin D2 (Ergosterol)
Ergosterol is a biological precursor (a provitamin) to vitamin D2. It is turned into viosterol by ultraviolet light, and is then converted into ergocalciferol, a form of vitamin D also known as D2 or D2. For this reason, when yeast (such as brewer's yeast) and fungi (such as mushrooms), are exposed to ultraviolet light, significant amounts of vitamin D2 are produced.
Because ergosterol is present in cell membranes of fungi yet absent in those of animals, it is a useful target for antifungal drugs. Ergosterol is also present in the cell membranes of some protists, such as trypanosomes. The three major human diseases caused by trypanosomatids are; African trypanosomiasis (Sleeping Sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei), South American trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi), and leishmaniasis (a set of trypanosomal diseases caused by various species of Leishmania). This is the basis for the use of some antifungals against West African sleeping sickness.
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin, so your body stores it in fat tissue and the liver. What can high-vitamin K foods do for you?
• Allow your blood to clot normally
• Help protect your bones from fracture
• Help prevent postmenopausal bone loss
• Help prevent calcification of your arteries
• Provide possible protection against liver and prostate cancer
Zinc is a metal. It is called an “essential trace element” because very small amounts of zinc are necessary for human health.
Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slow wound healing.
It is also used for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, and preventing lower respiratory infections. It is also used for malaria and other diseases caused by parasites.
Some people use zinc for an eye disease called macular degeneration, for night blindness, and for cataracts. It is also used for asthma; diabetes; high blood pressure; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); and skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne.
Other uses include treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), blunted sense of taste (hypogeusia), ringing in the ears (tinnitus), severe head injuries, Crohn’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Down syndrome, Hansen’s disease, ulcerative colitis, peptic ulcers and promoting weight gain in people with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa.
Some people use zinc for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), male infertility, erectile dysfunction (ED), weak bones (osteoporosis), rheumatoid arthritis, and muscle cramps associated with liver disease. It is also used for sickle cell disease and inherited disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, thalassemia, and Wilson’s disease.
Some athletes use zinc for improving athletic performance and strength.
Zinc is also applied to the skin for treating acne, aging skin, herpes simplex infections, and to speed wound healing.
The following are purported uses of the Chaga Mushroom:
• Bacterial Diseases
• Blood Pressure High (Hypertension)
• Blood Pressure Low (Hypotension)
• Blood Purification
• Candidiasis (yeast)
• Crohn’s Disease (CD)
• Fungal Growth
• Heart Disease
• Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
• Immune Support / Enhancer
• Intestinal Worms
• Kidney Tonic
• Lower Cholesterol
• Liver / Hepatitis
• Pain Relief
• Parotid gland
• Pulmonary Diseases
• Skin Ailments
• Stomach Ailments
• Stomach Disease
• Ulcerative Colitis (UC)